Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk in Egypt: a case-control study

Parasitol Res. 2021 Apr;120(4):1379-1388. doi: 10.1007/s00436-020-06942-7. Epub 2020 Nov 7.


Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that has been associated with prostate cancer in some countries. This study aims to investigate if T. vaginalis infection can be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Egypt and its possible relationship with cancer prognostic factors and overall survival. Serum samples were collected from a total of 445 age-matched males; 126 with prostate cancer, 108 with bladder cancer, 91 with different types of cancers, and 120 healthy controls, and then analyzed by ELISA for detection of anti-Trichomonas IgG and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The results revealed that only 8.3% of controls were seropositive for trichomoniasis, compared with 19% of prostate cancer patients (P = 0.015). There were positive associations between the levels of PSA and tumor stage with T. vaginalis IgG optical density scores among the seropositive cases (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). However, no significant correlations were detected between seropositivity of T. vaginalis and other prognostic factors or overall survival in those patients. In conclusion, chronic T. vaginalis infection may be associated with prostate cancer, but it does not seem that this STI aggravates the cancer status.

Keywords: Anti-Trichomonas IgG; ELISA; Prostate cancer; Prostate specific antigen; Trichomonas vaginalis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Trichomonas Infections / complications
  • Trichomonas Infections / epidemiology*
  • Trichomonas Infections / mortality
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen