The international nucleotide sequence database collaboration

Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 Jan 8;49(D1):D121-D124. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa967.


The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; has been the core infrastructure for collecting and providing nucleotide sequence data and metadata for >30 years. Three partner organizations, the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) at the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan; the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) in Hinxton, UK; and GenBank at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, USA have been collaboratively maintaining the INSDC for the benefit of not only science but all types of community worldwide.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Academies and Institutes
  • Base Sequence
  • Databases, Nucleic Acid*
  • Europe
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Japan
  • Metadata / statistics & numerical data*
  • Nucleotides / genetics*
  • Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States


  • Nucleotides