Comparison of Maceration and Ultrasonication for Green Extraction of Phenolic Acids from Echinacea purpurea Aerial Parts

Molecules. 2020 Nov 5;25(21):5142. doi: 10.3390/molecules25215142.


Echinacea purpurea is used in herbal medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the common cold, as well as for skin disorders and minor wounds. In this study, the efficiency of traditional maceration using water and ethanol was compared with the maceration using mixtures of water and glycerol, a non-toxic, biodegradable solvent from renewable sources. It was found that the glycerol-water mixtures were as effective as ethanol/water mixtures for the extraction of caffeic acid derivatives. All the prepared extracts demonstrated notable antiradical properties. Furthermore, an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction using glycerol-water mixtures was developed using six independent variables. Their levels needed for the maximum extraction of caffeic acid derivatives were as follows: glycerol 90% (m/m), temperature 70 °C, ultrasound power 72 W, time 40 min, and ascorbic acid 0 mg/mL. Under the optimized conditions, ultrasound-assisted extraction was superior to maceration. It achieved significantly higher yields of phenolic acids in shorter extraction time. The presence of zinc in plant material may contribute to the beneficial effects of E. purpurea preparations. Since glycerol is a non-toxic solvent with humectant properties, the prepared extracts can be directly used for the preparation of cosmetics or oral pharmaceutical formulations without the need for solvent removal.

Keywords: Echinacea purpurea; antioxidant; glycerol; green extraction; phenolic acids.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Caffeic Acids / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Echinacea / chemistry*
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radicals
  • Glycerol / chemistry
  • Hydroxybenzoates / chemistry*
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Components, Aerial / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry
  • Powders
  • Solvents
  • Succinates / chemistry
  • Ultrasonics
  • Viscosity
  • Water / chemistry
  • Zinc / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Caffeic Acids
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Free Radicals
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Proteins
  • Powders
  • Solvents
  • Succinates
  • Water
  • Ethanol
  • phenolic acid
  • Zinc
  • Glycerol
  • chicoric acid
  • caffeic acid
  • caftaric acid