Resistance of chemotherapy is one of causes of recurrence and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) resistance has not been fully elucidated. Here we observed that lncRNA NEAT1 was associated with 5-Fu resistance in CRC. Our Functional studies showed that NEAT1 promoted 5-Fu resistance in colorectal cells. In addition, A-TAC sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that NEAT1 affected chromatin remodeling, increased the acetylation levels of histones, increased their enrichment at the promoters of ALDH1 and c-Myc, and promoted the expression of ALDH1 and c-Myc. Taken together, our study suggested that NEAT1 promoted 5-Fu resistance and cancer stemness by remodeling chromatin. Our finding provides a novel role of NEAT1 and may provide a new strategy for the treatment of CRC 5-Fu resistance.