Sleep pattern in the US and 16 European countries during the COVID-19 outbreak using crowdsourced smartphone data

Eur J Public Health. 2021 Feb 1;31(1):23-30. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa208.


Background: To stop the spread of the new coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), many countries had completely locked down. This lockdown restricted the everyday life of the affected residents and changed their mobility pattern, but its effects on sleep pattern were largely unknown.

Methods: Here, utilizing one of the largest crowdsourced database (Sleep as Android), we analyzed the sleep pattern of 25 217 users with 1 352 513 sleep records between 1 January and 29 April 2020 in the US and 16 European countries (Germany, UK, Spain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, Hungary, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Czech, Sweden, Austria, Poland and Switzerland) with more than 100 records in all days of 2020.

Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the sleeping pattern before and after the country-level lockdown largely differed. The subjects increased their sleep duration by an average of 11.3 to 18.6 min on weekday nights, except Denmark (4.9 min) and Finland (7.1 min). In addition, subjects form all 16 European countries delayed their sleep onset from 10.7 min (Sweden) to 29.6 min (Austria).

Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, residents in the US and 16 European countries delayed their bedtime and slept longer than usual.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • COVID-19 / complications
  • COVID-19 / epidemiology
  • COVID-19 / psychology*
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Crowdsourcing*
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control*
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Health*
  • Pandemics
  • Quarantine / psychology
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology
  • Smartphone