Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), as the most common neurological emersion related to HTLV-1, is a debilitating and lifelong treating disease with no definitive treatment. Furthermore, it has been determined that dietary compositions (inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) and some micronutrients (such as vitamin D and selenium) have an effect on inflammatory and immune processes and with this background; the study was done to compare the nutritional status between age- and sex-matched with infected and non-infected HTLV-1. In a multi-center setting, 70 healthy controls (HCs), 35 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and 35 HAM/TSP patients were recruited in the HTLV-1 Foundation, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Nutritional status including anthropometric indices, dietary (micro- and macronutrient) intake, and serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, zinc, and selenium were measured. In anthropometric indices, mean waist circumference (WC) in the carrier group was significantly higher than the patient and the control groups (p = 0.008). In the dietary intake, the patient group received less energy, protein, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and oleic, but more fat than the HTLV-1 carrier and control groups, and these differences were remarkable in three groups (p = 0.002, 0.005, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively), whereas the carrier group received more saturated fatty acid and less poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic, and linolenic than patient and control groups with a different significant (p = 0.01, 0.007, 0.005, and 0.006, respectively) in three groups. In micronutrient intake, although selenium, zinc, and vitamins B12 and D were lower in the patient group than the carrier and control group, however, no significant differences were observed. In comparison with micronutrient serum concentrations, vitamins B12 and D and selenium in the patient group were lower than the carrier and control groups, but statistically, the considerable difference was found only in the selenium concentration (p = 0.001). The study showed that there were differences in dietary intake (including energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids), WC, and selenium serum levels between HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 carriers, suggesting that nutritional statues influence the inflammatory immune response in HTLV-1 infection.
Keywords: Anthropometric index; Dietary record; HAM/TSP; HTLV-1; Micronutrients.