Background: Acrylamide (ACR) has a wide range of uses. It possesses a renal impairment effect. The work aimed to study the possible protecting role of resveratrol (RVS) over the ACR-mediated renal impairment in rats. The suggested underlying mechanisms participating in such protection were investigated.
Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley adult albino rats were divided into three groups: control, ACR, and RVS. After 4 weeks, the kidney was removed and prepared for histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies. The activity of tissue oxidative (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and anti-oxidative (glutathione [GSH]) markers were assessed.
Results: Acrylamide induced glomerular renal affection in the form of shrinkage and distortion of the glomeruli with wrinkling of their basement membranes and widening of the urinary spaces. Degenerative tubular changes were markedly present in the proximal convoluted tubules. The necrotic tubular cells exhibited cytoplasmic vacuolation with desquamated epithelial cells within the tubular lumen. ACR increases the deposition of collagen fibres in the basement membrane of the glomerular capillaries and induced thickening of the basement membranes of the renal corpuscles and renal tubules. The administration of RVS affords high protection to the kidney. The glomeruli and renal tubules were nearly normal. The content of collagen fibres and the periodic acid Schiff reaction of the basement membrane of the renal tubules were 70% and 19% lower linked to the ACR group. The creatinine and urea levels decreased by 51% and 47%. RVS induced such a protective role through its antioxidant effect as the MDA level decreased by 45%, while the GSH level increased by 83% compared with the ACR group.
Conclusions: Acrylamide causes structural and functional disorders of the kidney. It induces kidney damage through oxidative stress and apoptosis. With the use of RVS, normal kidney architecture was preserved with little structural changes. Adding, functional kidney test became normal. RVS exerts its protective effect through its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant features.
Keywords: acrylamide; kidney; resveratrol.