Association of Proteinuria and Hematuria with Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

Kidney Blood Press Res. 2020;45(6):1018-1032. doi: 10.1159/000511946. Epub 2020 Nov 10.


Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is strongly associated with poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data on the association of proteinuria and hematuria are limited to non-US populations. In addition, admission and in-hospital measures for kidney abnormalities have not been studied separately.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze these associations in 321 patients sequentially admitted between March 7, 2020 and April 1, 2020 at Stony Brook University Medical Center, New York. We investigated the association of proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI with outcomes of inflammation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and in-hospital death. We used ANOVA, t test, χ2 test, and Fisher's exact test for bivariate analyses and logistic regression for multivariable analysis.

Results: Three hundred patients met the inclusion criteria for the study cohort. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that admission proteinuria was significantly associated with risk of in-hospital AKI (OR 4.71, 95% CI 1.28-17.38), while admission hematuria was associated with ICU admission (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.12-18.64), IMV (OR 8.79, 95% CI 2.08-37.00), and death (OR 18.03, 95% CI 2.84-114.57). During hospitalization, de novo proteinuria was significantly associated with increased risk of death (OR 8.94, 95% CI 1.19-114.4, p = 0.04). In-hospital AKI increased (OR 27.14, 95% CI 4.44-240.17) while recovery from in-hospital AKI decreased the risk of death (OR 0.001, 95% CI 0.001-0.06).

Conclusion: Proteinuria and hematuria both at the time of admission and during hospitalization are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; COVID-19; Hematuria; Proteinuria.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / mortality
  • Acute Kidney Injury / urine*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / virology*
  • Aged
  • COVID-19 / mortality
  • COVID-19 / urine*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Hematuria / mortality
  • Hematuria / virology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • New York / epidemiology
  • Proteinuria / mortality
  • Proteinuria / virology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2 / isolation & purification
  • Survival Analysis