Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in pediatric patients--review of the world literature and two new observations

Pediatr Radiol. 1987;17(6):439-42. doi: 10.1007/BF02388272.


Report of two new pediatric cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM). PAM is a rare disease of unknown etiology; not more than 38 cases have been reported aged less than 18 years. The essential features of this disease are (1) a characteristic radiographic appearance of a sand-like opacity of both lungs and linear densities like "beads on a string" along the heart, pleura and interlobar fissures; this is best visualized by fluoroscopy in combination with magnification technique; (2) extremely few clinical signs and almost no laboratory abnormalities.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcinosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Alveoli / diagnostic imaging*
  • Radiography