A novel exomal ATRX mutation with preferential transmission to offspring: A case report and review of the literature for transmission ratio distortion in ATRX families

Mol Med Rep. 2020 Dec;22(6):4561-4566. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2020.11574. Epub 2020 Oct 9.


The present case report describes an Italian family with three affected probands, who exhibited serious mental disability, which has not been associated with other anomalies, except with slight facial dysmorphism. Molecular multigenic analysis for intellectual disability identified a previously unreported variant, p.Ile1765Met (c.5295C>G) in the SNF domain of the ATRX protein (in exon 24). The identified mutation was found in a hemizygous state in all three affected probands and in a heterozygous state in the asymptomatic mother and the female sibling. With respect to the phenotypic similarities found in the patients with those described in previous studies, the consistency in the mode of inheritance and segregation of the mutation, the variant reported in the present case report may be considered as 'likely pathogenic'. To investigate the hypothesis that the preferential transmission of the ATRX mutation observed in this family reflected a general trend, a meta‑analysis into the segregation of ATRX mutations from published pedigrees, following allelic transmission from mothers who are heterozygous carriers to their offspring, was performed. A preferential transmission of the mutant allele to male offspring (58% of males inherited the mutant allele) was found; however, the bias was not statistically significant (P=0.29; χ2 test).

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • DNA Helicases / genetics
  • Exons / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency / genetics
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics*
  • Intellectual Disability / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • X-linked Nuclear Protein / genetics*
  • X-linked Nuclear Protein / metabolism


  • Nuclear Proteins
  • DNA Helicases
  • ATRX protein, human
  • X-linked Nuclear Protein