High-speed range and velocity measurement using frequency scanning interferometry with adaptive delay lines [Invited]

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2020 Nov 1;37(11):1814-1825. doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.403858.

Abstract

Range (i.e., absolute distance), displacement, and velocity of a moving target have been measured with a frequency scanning interferometer that incorporates a 100,000scans-1 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with 100 nm tuning range. An adaptive delay line in the reference beam, consisting of a chain of switchable exponentially growing optical delays, reduced modulation frequencies to sub-gigahertz levels. Range, displacement, and velocity were determined from the phase of the interference signal; fine alignment and linearization of the scans were achieved from the interferogram of an independent reference interferometer. Sub-nanometer displacement resolution, sub-100-nm range resolution, and velocity resolution of 12µms-1 have been demonstrated over a depth measurement range of 300 mm.