Detective quantum efficiency of intensified CMOS cameras for Cherenkov imaging in radiotherapy

Phys Med Biol. 2020 Nov 12;65(22):225013. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/abb0c5.


In this study the metric of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was applied to Cherenkov imaging systems for the first time, and results were compared for different detector hardware, gain levels and with imaging processing for noise suppression. Intensified complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras using different image intensifier designs (Gen3 and Gen2+) were used to image Cherenkov emission from a tissue phantom in order to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) of the systems. These parameters were used to calculate the DQE for varying acquisition settings and image processing steps. MTF curves indicated that the Gen3 system had superior contrast transfer and spatial resolution than the Gen2+ system, with [Formula: see text] values of 0.52 mm-1 and 0.31 mm-1, respectively. With median filtering for noise suppression, these values decreased to 0.50 mm-1 and 0.26 mm-1. The maximum NPS values for the Gen3 and Gen2+ systems at high gain were 1.3 × 106 mm2 and 9.1 × 104 mm2 respectively, representing a 14x decrease in noise power for the Gen2+ system. Both systems exhibited increased NPS intensity with increasing gain, while median filtering lowered the NPS. The DQE of each system increased with increasing gain, and at the maximum gain levels the Gen3 system had a low-frequency DQE of 0.31%, while the Gen2+ system had a value of 1.44%. However, at a higher frequency of 0.4 mm-1, these values became 0.54% and 0.03%. Filtering improved DQE for the Gen3 system and reduced DQE for the Gen2+ system and had a mix of detrimental and beneficial qualitative effects by decreasing the spatial resolution and sharpness but also substantially lowering noise. This methodology for DQE measurement allowed for quantitative comparison between Cherenkov imaging cameras and improvements to their sensitivity, and yielded the first formal assessment of Cherenkov image formation efficiency.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Metals / chemistry*
  • Oxides / chemistry*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Quantum Theory*
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided*
  • Semiconductors*


  • Metals
  • Oxides