The article presents the design of the upper limb joints of an anthropometric dummy intended for rear crash tests for low impact speeds. These joints represent the connection of the hand to the forearm, the forearm to the arm, and the arm to the shoulder. The designed joint is adapted to the construction of a dummy representing the 50th percentile male. The joints currently used on Hybrid III dummies require calibration after each crash test. The construction of the new joint ensures the appropriate strength of individual joint elements and the repeatable value of the joint characteristics without the need for frequent calibrations. The designed joints have the ability to set a variable stiffness characteristic, thanks to which it is possible to use this joint universally in dummies representing populations of other percentile sizes. The range of movement of the joints has been selected to reflect the range of mobility of the upper limb of an adult. The characteristics of the joints were compared with those used in the joints of the Hybrid III 50 percentile male dummy. Moreover, it should be noted that the constructed joints of the upper limb are made by hand; therefore, their comparison with the Hybrid III dummy shows some deviations in the moments of resistance. Making the joints with a 3D printer, taking into account the appropriate material, will ensure greater accuracy and will also result in joining the individual elements of the joint into a whole. The obtained results show slight differences between the moment of resistance in the joints of the constructed anthropometric dummy compared to the hybrid III dummy.
Keywords: accidents; collision biomechanics; dummy; joint; road safety.