A systematic review report on tobacco products and its health issues in India

Rev Environ Health. 2020 Nov 13;36(3):367-389. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2020-0037. Print 2021 Sep 27.


India is the second country in tobacco production in the world. Smoking tobacco products included Hookah, Cohutta, Chillum, Chillum, ganja, Beedi, Mava, Cigarettes, and cigar etc. Various types of smokeless tobacco like betel quid, khaini, mishri, snuff, gutkha are used. Fifty percent of them are addicted to smokeless tobacco. Sixty eight smokeless tobacco products were available in 2010; most of them included the risk of cancer warning except for loose tobacco products. Women mostly prefer 8 out of 29 gutkha brands. Out of these 29 gutkha brands, 15 were loose tobacco packets. India is the second-largest tobacco consumer, comprises of 27.5 crore consumers which altogether greater than the population of Western Europe. From among these 27.5 crore consumers, 16.4 crore people are smokeless tobacco in takers, 6.9 crore people are exclusive smokers and 4.2 crore people are both tobacco in takers and exclusive smokers. If we take this data into consideration early mortality of 45 crore people is expected by 2050 worldwide. Female basically are prone to fewer cigarettes per day as compared to males. On the other hand, a cigarette that is consumed by females has lower nicotine content as compared to males. In developing countries, the female population has less prevalence of smoking because the level of employment is low, socio-cultural norms, and health and beauty concerns. According to the estimation by the South East Asia Region (SEAR) in the year 2000 basically from India, we encounter death of about 18% men and about 3% of women due to tobacco. Various policies have been set up to control the use of tobacco. So that threat to public health is reduced. Policies like tobacco control policy, pro-health policy are set up for this purpose. Talking about the effects on a longer-term usage of water pipe can add up to the risk of getting affected by cancers of lungs, mouth, bladders, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, tooth extraction, etc.

Keywords: control policies; health effects; tobacco and tobacco products; tobacco laws.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / chemically induced
  • Economic Factors
  • Government Regulation
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Nicotine / adverse effects
  • Public Policy
  • Tobacco Products / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Products / economics
  • Tobacco Use / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use / prevention & control


  • Nicotine