Comparison between vertebroplasty with high or low viscosity cement augmentation or kyphoplasty in cement leakage rate for patients with vertebral compression fracture: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Eur Spine J. 2021 Sep;30(9):2680-2690. doi: 10.1007/s00586-020-06636-9. Epub 2020 Nov 13.


Purpose: This study aims to determine whether outcomes following vertebroplasty with high viscosity cement are superior to low viscosity cement and non-inferior to kyphoplasty in the setting of vertebral compression fractures.

Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies assessing cement leakage rate in adult patients with VCFs who underwent vertebroplasty with high (HVCV) or low viscosity cement (LVCV) augmentation, or kyphoplasty (KP) in PubMed, Embase, Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception up to December 2019. Two authors extracted data and appraised risk of bias. We performed pairwise meta-analyses in R to compare differences between three treatments and network meta-analysis using frequentist random-effects models for indirect comparison. We used P-score to rate the overall certainty of evidence. The primary outcome was cement leakage rate.

Results: Five RCTs and eight cohort studies with 840 patients and a total of 1280 vertebral bodies were included in the systematic review and network meta-analysis. Compared to LVCV, the relative risk for cement leakage following HVCV and KP was 0.42 (95% CI 0.28-0.61) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.40-1.68), respectively. Our pooled results suggested that HVCV (P-score = 0.99) was better than KP (P-score = 0.36) in cement leakage rate.

Conclusions: The present network meta-analysis demonstrated that HVCV may be associated with lower risk of cement leakage among patients with VCFs as compared to other augmentation techniques. Future prospective studies will validate the findings of this analysis and further elucidate the risk of symptomatic cement leakage.

Keywords: Cement leakage; Kyphoplasty; Vertebral compression fracture; Vertebroplasty.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Fractures, Compression* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Kyphoplasty* / adverse effects
  • Network Meta-Analysis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Spinal Fractures* / surgery
  • Vertebroplasty* / adverse effects
  • Viscosity