Drug-induced pemphigoid. A spectrum of diseases

Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Dec;105(12):1660-3. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1987.01060120058023.


Drug-induced ocular pemphigoid has been reported to occur after long-term use of topical glaucoma medications. We have reviewed the literature on drug-induced ocular pemphigoid and have added our experience with five patients with glaucoma who developed ocular cicatricial (benign mucosal) pemphigoid after treatment with various topical glaucoma medications. We also describe a case of timolol-induced ocular pemphigoid. The presentation and progression of drug-induced ocular cicatricial pemphigoid can be variable. We propose that drug-induced ocular pemphigoid represents a spectrum of diseases ranging from a self-limiting, toxic form to a progressive, immunologic form.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Eye Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Female
  • Glaucoma / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / chemically induced
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous / chemically induced*
  • Pilocarpine / adverse effects
  • Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous / chemically induced*
  • Timolol / adverse effects


  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Pilocarpine
  • Timolol