TOXiTAXi: a web resource for toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis protein compositions towards species of various taxonomic groups

Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 13;10(1):19767. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75932-7.


Bioinsecticides consisting of different sets of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry, Cyt and Vip toxins are broadly used in pest control. Possible interactions (synergistic, additive or antagonistic) between these proteins can not only influence the overall efficacy of certain Bt-based bioinsecticide, but also raise questions regarding environmental safety. Here, we assemble, summarize and analyze the outcomes of experiments published over 30 years, investigating combinatorial effects among Bt Cry, Cyt and Vip toxins. We collected the results on 118 various two-to-five-component combinations that have been bioassayed against 38 invertebrate species. Synergism, additive effect and antagonism was indicated in 54%, 32% and 14% of experiments, respectively. Synergism was noted most frequently for Cry/Cyt combinations, followed by Cyt/Vip and Cry/Cry. In Cry/Vip combinations, antagonism is more frequent and higher in magnitude compared to other categories. Despite a significant number of tested Bt toxin combinations, most of them have been bioassayed only against one pest species. To aid the research on Bt pesticidal protein activity, we present TOXiTAXi ( ), a universal database and a dedicated web tool to conveniently gather and analyze the existing and future bioassay results on biocidal activity of toxins against various taxonomic groups.

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus thuringiensis / metabolism*
  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins / chemistry*
  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Biological Assay
  • Insecticides / chemistry
  • Insecticides / metabolism
  • Pest Control, Biological


  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Insecticides