Evaluation of systemic inflammatory and thrombotic markers of cardiovascular risk among young Indian oral tobacco users

Indian Heart J. 2020 Sep-Oct;72(5):389-393. doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2020.08.005. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Abstract

Background: While the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant effects of cigarette smoking have been well described, the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on inflammatory and coagulation markers is still not clear. The study aimed to evaluate impact of smokeless tobacco use on systemic markers of inflammation [(TLC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (ESR), interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)] and hypercoagulable state [fibrinogen and d-dimer] leading to increased cardiovascular risk in ST users as compared to non-users.

Methods: 150 healthy young adults using oral tobacco products for at least 1 year were included in the case group and 50 age-matched non-consumers as controls. Subjects with any known chronic illness or comorbidity were excluded from the study. Blood samples were tested for TLC, NLR, ESR, IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, fibrinogen and d-dimer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software.

Results: The baseline clinical and cardio-metabolic characteristics were comparable between the two groups. ST users had significantly elevated serum IL-6 [59.29 ± 124.69 pg/mL (n = 149) vs 8.21 ± 27.27 pg/mL (n = 47), p-value = 0.005], TNFα [77.18 ± 236.10 pg/mL (n = 149) vs 8.32 ± 9.36 pg/mL (n = 47), p-value = 0.041], fibrinogen [310.53 ± 129.05 mg/dL (n = 143) vs 282.82 ± 65.23 mg/dL (n = 42), p-value = 0.045] and d-dimer [0.28 ± 0.42 mg/L (n = 144) vs 0.17 ± 0.09 mg/L (n = 45), p-value = 0.043] levels as compared to non-users. Serum TLC, NLR, ESR and IL-1β remained unchanged in ST users and were similar to that of controls.

Conclusions: Chronic use of ST is associated with systemic inflammation and coagulation, which may increase the risk of athero-thrombotic cardiovascular events among ST users.

Keywords: Coagulation; Inflammatory; Smokeless tobacco(ST).

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Female
  • Fibrinogen / metabolism*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Thrombosis / blood*
  • Thrombosis / epidemiology
  • Tobacco, Smokeless / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • Fibrinogen