Adults with and without type 1 diabetes have similar energy and macronutrient intakes: an analysis from the Australian Health Survey 2011-2013

Nutr Res. 2020 Dec:84:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2020.09.009. Epub 2020 Oct 2.


The aim of this study was to describe and compare the mean usual dietary intakes of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and without diabetes living in Australia. Our hypothesis was that adults with T1D have similar dietary intake profiles to adults without diabetes. Data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012, which formed part of the Australian Health Survey 2011-13, were used and participants ≥18 years of age with T1D and without diabetes were included in the analyses. T1D status was assigned to participants who reported a diabetes diagnosis at age <25 years and still had diabetes at the time of survey completion. Mean usual intakes of energy, macronutrients and carbohydrate-rich food groups, measured by 24-hour recall, were compared between groups using Analysis of Covariance after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status and body mass index. The number of adults classified with T1D and without diabetes was n = 43 and n = 8844, respectively. The T1D group had a mean energy intake (%E) of 7873 kJ/day with 45%E from carbohydrates (213 g/day), 31%E from fats (67 g/day) and 20%E from proteins (88 g/day). There were no significant differences in energy or macronutrient intakes between groups (P ≥ .07), except individuals with T1D reported higher intakes of whole grains and high fiber cereals, after multivariable adjustment (2.4 vs 1.7 serves/day; P = .02). In conclusion, adults with and without T1D had similar reported energy and macronutrient intake profiles that are consistent with current dietary recommendations for T1D management and healthy eating guidelines for the general population.

Keywords: Australian Health Survey; National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey; dietary intake; epidemiological research; human; type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Australia
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Eating*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins