Development of a simple and reliable method to determine the lipid peroxide level in human serum or plasma has made it possible to survey the levels in human diseases. Since in some human diseases lipid peroxides are increased in various organs or tissues and leak into the bloodstream, the increased lipid peroxide level in the blood aids the diagnosis of such diseases. Furthermore, determination of the level provides useful information as to their prognosis, since the increased lipid peroxides in the blood primarily attack the endothelial cells of vessels and then intact organs or tissues as well. The present paper describes a method to determine the lipid peroxide level in human serum or plasma and its profile of change in several human diseases. Intervention of lipid peroxides in the pathogenesis of certain diseases is also mentioned.