Comparative proteome analysis reveals VPS28 regulates milk fat synthesis through ubiquitylation in bovine mammary epithelial cells

PeerJ. 2020 Jul 28;8:e9542. doi: 10.7717/peerj.9542. eCollection 2020.


In our previous study, we found that VPS28 (vacuolar protein sorting 28 homolog) could alter ubiquitylation level to regulate milk fat synthesis in bovine primary mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). While the information on the regulation of VPS28 on proteome of milk fat synthesis is less known, we explored its effect on milk fat synthesis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation assay after knocking down VPS28 in BMECs. A total of 2,773 proteins in three biological replicates with a false discovery rate of less than 1.2% were identified and quantified. Among them, a subset of 203 proteins were screened as significantly down-(111) and up-(92) regulated in VPS28 knockdown BMECs compared with the control groups. According to Gene Ontology analysis, the differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the "proteasome," "ubiquitylation," "metabolism of fatty acids," "phosphorylation," and "ribosome." Meanwhile, some changes occurred in the morphology of BMECs and an accumulation of TG (triglyceride) and dysfunction of proteasome were identified, and a series of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, ubiquitylation and proteasome pathways were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of this study suggested VPS28 regulated milk fat synthesis was mediated by ubiquitylation; it could be an important new area of study for milk fat synthesis and other milk fat content traits in bovine.

Keywords: Milk fat synthesis; Proteome; Ubiquitylation; VPS28; iTRAQ.

Grant support

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (31902152), the National Major Development Program of Transgenic Breeding (2014ZX0800953B), the National Natural Science Foundations of China (31201772), the National Science and Technology Programs of China (2013AA102504). The funders had no roles in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.