The CAM-ICU-7 and ICDSC as measures of delirium severity in critically ill adult patients

PLoS One. 2020 Nov 16;15(11):e0242378. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242378. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: In clinical practice, a dichotomous approach to delirium identification may no longer be relevant when existing delirium screening tools measure a range of scores. The objective of this study was to compare the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit 7-item (CAM-ICU-7) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) as measures of the spectrum of delirium severity in critically ill adult patients.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 218 patients underwent 641 paired assessments by bedside nurses (ICDSC, as per usual care) and trained research assistants (CAM-ICU-7). Correlation between the CAM-ICU-7 and ICDSC scores was evaluated. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between CAM-ICU-7 or ICDSC score and length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation (receipt, ≥96 hours).

Results: Delirium prevalence evaluated by the CAM-ICU-7 and ICDSC were 46.3% (95% CI:39.7-53.0) and 34.4% (95% CI:28.3-41.0). Prevalence of less than clinical threshold symptoms of delirium evaluated by the CAM-ICU-7 (score: 1-2) and ICDSC (score: 1-3) were 30.3% (95%CI:24.5-36.7) and 50.9% (95%CI:44.3-57.6). The CAM-ICU-7 and ICDSC had significant positive correlation (0.58, p<0.001). Agreement between the tools as measures of delirium was moderate (kappa = 0.51) and as measures of less than clinical threshold symptoms of delirium was fair (kappa = 0.21). Less than clinical threshold symptoms of delirium identified by the ICDSC, not CAM-ICU-7, were associated with prolonged length of ICU stay (≥7 days) in patients <65 years of age [Odds Ratio (OR) 9.2, 95% CI:2.5-34.0] and mechanical ventilation (receipt: OR 2.8, 95% CI:1.3-6.4; ≥96 hours: OR 6.6, 95% CI:1.9-22.9), when compared to patients with no delirium.

Conclusions: The CAM-ICU-7 and ICDSC are measures of the spectrum of delirium severity that are closely correlated. Less than clinical threshold symptoms of delirium measure by the ICDSC is a better predictor of outcomes, when compared with the CAM-ICU-7.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Critical Care / methods
  • Critical Illness / classification*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Delirium / classification*
  • Delirium / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence

Grant support