Development of a mindfulness-based treatment for smoking cessation and the modification of alcohol use: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial and pilot study findings

Contemp Clin Trials. 2021 Jan;100:106218. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2020.106218. Epub 2020 Nov 14.


The combined use of cigarettes and alcohol is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Yet, efficacious interventions that address both behaviors concurrently are lacking. Smoking cessation and alcohol modification not only garner health benefits, but there is also value in addressing alcohol use in the context of smoking cessation to reduce the risk for smoking relapse. In this paper we describe the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention for smoking cessation and alcohol modification (MBRP-SA) and pilot study findings (Phase 1). Next, details regarding the methods and design of an ongoing, randomized controlled trial, Project RISE (Phase 2), are described. MBRP-SA is a group-based intervention that consists of eight weekly treatment sessions. Results from the Phase 1 pilot study (N = 21 enrolled) indicated that participants planned to use the skills learned in their everyday activities and to address their smoking and alcohol goals. Based on the progression of Phase 1 cohorts, modifications were made to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and recruitment methods that will be implemented in Phase 2. Phase 2 will assess the feasibility and acceptability of MBRP-SA, delivered via live online groups, as a primary treatment option for smoking cessation and alcohol use modification.

Keywords: Alcohol use; Mindfulness; Pilot study; Randomized controlled trial; Smoking cessation; Tobacco.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Mindfulness*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Smoking
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Tobacco Smoking