Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with adverse maternal outcomes using a United States multistate database cohort, 2007-2014

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2021 Feb;45:74-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2020.10.007. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Abstract

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea affects approximately 11% of women of reproductive age, although it is often undetected and untreated. Previous studies suggest an association between obstructive sleep apnea and adverse maternal outcomes. Herein, we aim to better characterize the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and maternal outcomes.

Methods: Using the State Inpatient Databases, we performed a retrospective analysis of parturients ≥18 years old having inpatient deliveries in Florida, New York, California, Maryland, and Kentucky from 2007 to 2014. Outcomes included maternal pre-existing conditions, in-hospital mortality, maternal-fetal conditions and complications, and hospital length of stay >5 days.

Results: Our cohort consisted of 6 911 916 parturients of whom 4326 (0.06%) had obstructive sleep apnea. Women with obstructive sleep apnea were more likely to present with pre-existing conditions, such as obesity and pre-pregnancy diabetes. After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders in our multivariate analysis, obstructive sleep apnea status was associated with an increased odds of maternal-fetal conditions and complications, including pre-eclampsia (aOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.87 to 2.26), pulmonary edema (aOR 4.73, 95% CI 2.84 to 7.89), cesarean delivery (aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.11), early onset delivery (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.40), and length of stay >5 days (aOR 2.42, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.65). Obstructive sleep apnea was not significantly associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Pregnant women with obstructive sleep apnea have a significantly higher adjusted risk of adverse maternal outcomes compared with women without obstructive sleep apnea.

Keywords: Maternal outcomes; Obstructive sleep apnea; Outcomes research; Pregnancy.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cesarean Section
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications* / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / complications
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology