Biomarker Development for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Omics, Antigens, T-cells, and Beyond

J Pers Med. 2020 Nov 13;10(4):225. doi: 10.3390/jpm10040225.


The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has evolved quickly over the last few years from a disease managed primarily with sequential oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, to now with a combination of therapies incorporating immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Patient outcomes have improved with these innovations, however, controversy persists regarding optimal sequence and patient selection amongst the available combinations. Ideally, predictive biomarkers would aid in guiding treatment decisions and personalizing care. However, clinically-actionable biomarkers have remained elusive. We aim to review the available evidence regarding biomarkers for both TKIs and ICB and will present where the field may be headed in the years to come.

Keywords: PD-L1; VEGF; biomarkers; clear cell; immune checkpoint blockade; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; renal cell carcinoma; tyrosine-kinase inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review