A Benchmark of Data Stream Classification for Human Activity Recognition on Connected Objects

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Nov 13;20(22):6486. doi: 10.3390/s20226486.


This paper evaluates data stream classifiers from the perspective of connected devices, focusing on the use case of Human Activity Recognition. We measure both the classification performance and resource consumption (runtime, memory, and power) of five usual stream classification algorithms, implemented in a consistent library, and applied to two real human activity datasets and three synthetic datasets. Regarding classification performance, the results show the overall superiority of the Hoeffding Tree, the Mondrian forest, and the Naïve Bayes classifiers over the Feedforward Neural Network and the Micro Cluster Nearest Neighbor classifiers on four datasets out of six, including the real ones. In addition, the Hoeffding Tree and-to some extent-the Micro Cluster Nearest Neighbor, are the only classifiers that can recover from a concept drift. Overall, the three leading classifiers still perform substantially worse than an offline classifier on the real datasets. Regarding resource consumption, the Hoeffding Tree and the Mondrian forest are the most memory intensive and have the longest runtime; however, no difference in power consumption is found between classifiers. We conclude that stream learning for Human Activity Recognition on connected objects is challenged by two factors which could lead to interesting future work: a high memory consumption and low F1 scores overall.

Keywords: Hoeffding tree; MCNN; Mondrian; application platform; benchmark; classification; data management and analytics; data streams; human activity recognition; memory footprint; power; smart environment.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Human Activities*
  • Humans
  • Neural Networks, Computer*