Three-dimensional (3D) technologies are being used for patient education. For glioma, a personalized 3D model can show the patient specific tumor and eloquent areas. We aim to compare the amount of information that is understood and can be recalled after a pre-operative consult using a 3D model (physically printed or in Augmented Reality (AR)) versus two-dimensional (2D) MR images. In this explorative study, healthy individuals were eligible to participate. Sixty-one participants were enrolled and assigned to either the 2D (MRI/fMRI), 3D (physical 3D model) or AR groups. After undergoing a mock pre-operative consultation for low-grade glioma surgery, participants completed two assessments (one week apart) testing information recall using a standardized questionnaire. The 3D group obtained the highest recall scores on both assessments (Cohen's d = 1.76 and Cohen's d = 0.94, respectively, compared to 2D), followed by AR and 2D, respectively. Thus, real-size 3D models appear to improve information recall as compared to MR images in a pre-operative consultation for glioma cases. Future clinical studies should measure the efficacy of using real-size 3D models in actual neurosurgery patients.
Keywords: 3D model; Augmented Reality; glioma; information recall; patient education; pre-operative consultation.