Most cervical cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Currently, cervical cancer treatment entails surgical removal of the lesion, but treatment of infection and preventing tissue damage are issues that still remain to be addressed. Herbal medicine and biological studies have focused on developing antiviral drugs from natural sources. In this study, we analyzed the potential antiviral effects of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. leaf extracts against HPV. The pine needle extracts from each organic solvent were analyzed for antiviral activity. The methylene chloride fraction (PN-MC) showed the highest activity against HPV pseudovirus (PV). The PN-MC extract was more effective before, rather than after treatment, and therefore represents a prophylactic intervention. Mice were pre-treated with PN-MC via genital application or oral administration, followed by a genital or subcutaneous challenge with HPV PV, respectively. The HPV challenge results showed that mice treated via genital application exhibited complete protection against HPV. In conclusion, PN-MC represents a potential topical virucide for HPV infection.
Keywords: HPV; antiviral; extract; pine needles; topical treatment.