Risk factors for tumor recurrence and progression of spindle cell oncocytoma of the pituitary gland: a systematic review and pooled analysis

Pituitary. 2021 Jun;24(3):429-437. doi: 10.1007/s11102-020-01110-7. Epub 2020 Nov 18.


Introduction: Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) is an extremely rare sellar neoplasm. No observational studies have been reported so far to investigate the prognostic factors of this tumor entity. This systematic review aimed to elucidate the risk factors for tumor recurrence/progression of SCO.

Methods: We searched for relevant articles in PubMed and Web of Science. Studies providing individual patient data with follow-up information of SCO cases were included. Pearson's Chi square and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables while t test or Mann-Whitney tests were applied for continuous variables, if applicable. We used the Cox regression model to assess the effects of suspected variables on progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: A total of 38 case reports and case series comprising of 67 SCOs were included for final analyses. Recurrent/progressive tumors were noted in 38.8% of cases. Among the clinicopathological factors, only the extent of surgery was a significant risk factor for tumor recurrence/progression. SCO patients with a subtotal resection had a significantly higher risk for tumor relapse in comparison with complete removal (HR 7.51; 95% CI 1.75-32.31; p = 0.007).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the characteristic clinicopathological features of SCOs with a high recurrence/progression rate and outlined the predictor for tumor relapse. Failure to achieve gross total resection is the only risk factor for tumor recurrence/progression.

Keywords: Adenohypophysis; Neurohypophysis; Pituitary; Progression; Recurrence; Spindle cell oncocytoma.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma, Oxyphilic* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Pituitary Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Risk Factors