Impact of non-CNS childhood cancer on resting-state connectivity and its association with cognition

Brain Behav. 2021 Jan;11(1):e01931. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1931. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Abstract

Introduction: Non-central nervous system cancer in childhood (non-CNS CC) and its treatments pose a major threat to brain development, with implications for functional networks. Structural and functional alterations might underlie the cognitive late-effects identified in survivors of non-CNS CC. The present study evaluated resting-state functional networks and their associations with cognition in a mixed sample of non-CNS CC survivors (i.e., leukemia, lymphoma, and other non-CNS solid tumors).

Methods: Forty-three patients (off-therapy for at least 1 year and aged 7-16 years) were compared with 43 healthy controls matched for age and sex. High-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired. Executive functions, attention, processing speed, and memory were assessed outside the scanner.

Results: Cognitive performance was within the normal range for both groups; however, patients after CNS-directed therapy showed lower executive functions than controls. Seed-based connectivity analyses revealed that patients exhibited stronger functional connectivity between fronto- and temporo-parietal pathways and weaker connectivity between parietal-cerebellar and temporal-occipital pathways in the right hemisphere than controls. Functional hyperconnectivity was related to weaker memory performance in the patients' group.

Conclusion: These data suggest that even in the absence of brain tumors, non-CNS CC and its treatment can lead to persistent cerebral alterations in resting-state network connectivity.

Keywords: childhood cancer survivors; cognitive late-effects; non-CNS childhood cancers; resting-state networks; rs-fMRI analysis.