Although most neonates will not require resuscitation, emergency clinicians must be prepared to manage neonates who require respiratory assistance. This issue reviews current expert recommendations and consensus updates of the best practices in resuscitation of neonates. An overview of neonatal physiology provides a framework for understanding how neonatal resuscitation differs from that of children and adults. A step-wise, systematic approach is provided for identifying and managing newborns who require resuscitation. The treatment, management, and over-arching goals for neonatal resuscitation and newborn care are also reviewed.