In healthy infants and young children, the development of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is extremely common. In this paper, we present an international consensus of the available approaches for the prevention of recurrent RTIs in children, including the atopic/allergic ones as well as those with asthma. Few convincing measures for reducing the frequency and clinical relevance of recurrent respiratory episodes in RTI-prone children have been developed until now. Among the most recently suggested measures, immunotherapy is attractive, but only for OM-85 is there a sufficient number of well-conducted clinical trials confirming efficacy in RTIs prevention with an adequate safety profile. In the case of probiotics, it is not clear which bacteria can offer the best results and which dosage and schedule of administration are the most effective. The problems of dosage and the schedule of administration are not solved also for vitamin D, despite some promising efficacy results. While we wait for new knowledge, the elimination or reduction as much as possible of the environmental factors that favor RTIs, vaccination when available and/or indicated, and the systematic application of the traditional methods for infection prevention, such as hand washing, remain the best measures to prevent recurrent infections in RTI-prone children.
Keywords: bacterial lysates; pidotimod; probiotics; respiratory infection; respiratory recurrences; vitamin.