The effect of vitamin D supplementation on the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized controlled trial

Clin Nutr. 2021 May;40(5):3325-3331. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.005. Epub 2020 Nov 7.


Background and aims: Inflammation and proliferation are the cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are the key components of its mechanism of action. In this study we sought to determine the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in BPH, because of its anti-inflammatory activities, and its effect on prostate volume and BPH symptoms.

Methods: This randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted on 108 participants >50 years of age who had either asymptomatic or mild BPH symptoms according to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, intervention and control. The intervention group received 50 000 units of vitamin D3 and the control group received a placebo every two weeks for six months. Prostate ultrasound, routine clinical examinations, toucher rectal (TR), and laboratory tests were performed for all patients. After six months, the patients underwent another ultrasound evaluation, measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and completed the IPSS. Results of the evaluations before and after the intervention were compared between the groups using the chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression analysis. Repeated measure analysis was used to evaluate the effect of vitamin D intervention on the changes in the IPSS score.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 56 ± 9 years. In the control group, the mean prostate volume was higher compared to the intervention group (p < 0.001). The control group had a higher mean PSA level than the intervention group (p < 0.001). Although the IPSS score decreased over time in both groups, analysis of variance showed that the amount of change or decrease in IPSS score in the intervention group was significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results of our study support the effect of vitamin D in reducing prostate volume and PSA levels, and in improving BPH symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings to verify the use of vitamin D as a treatment for BPH.

Keywords: Benign prostate hypertrophy; Inflammation; Proliferation; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate / drug effects
  • Prostate / pathology
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / drug therapy
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / epidemiology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / pathology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / physiopathology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamin D* / pharmacology
  • Vitamin D* / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Vitamin D
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen

Associated data

  • IRCT/IRCT20180922041089N3