Objective: Examine factors associated with postprocedure opioid receipt and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients in a nationally representative sample.
Summary background data: We used panels 18-20 in the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) between the years 2013 and 2015. Respondents ages 18 and over with any self-reported procedure in the previous year with complete data on the outcome variables for the remainder of the 2-year study period.
Methods: This prospective observational study used multivariable regression to determine factors associated with postprocedure opioid receipt and persistent opioid use among opioid-naive patients, adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and procedure-related characteristics.
Results: Adjusted models showed younger age, Western location (AOR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.86), and high-school degree (AOR = 1.60; CI = 1.14, 2.26) were associated with higher odds of postprocedure opioid receipt. Patients who had procedures in an inpatient (AOR: 5.71; CI: 4.31-7.56), outpatient (AOR = 3.77; CI = 2.87,4.95), and dental setting (AOR = 2.86; CI = 1.45, 5.63), and musculoskeletal diagnoses (AOR = 2.23; CI = 1.39, 3.58) and injuries (AOR = 2.04; CI = 1.29, 3.23) were more likely to have postprocedure opioid receipt. Persistent opioid use was associated with Midwest (AOR = 2.06; CI = 1.08, 3.95) and Northeast location (AOR = 2.45; CI = 1.03, 3.95), musculoskeletal diagnosis (AOR = 3.91; CI = 1.23, 8.31), public insurance (AOR = 2.07; CI = 1.23-3.49), and positive depression screener (AOR = 3.36; CI = 2.04, 5.55).
Conclusions: Procedures account for a large portion of opioid prescriptions among opioid-naive patients. This study provides evidence to inform national guidelines for opioid prescribing and postprocedure pain management.
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