Impact of Gender Differences on Outcomes of Peripheral Artery Disease Intervention (from a Nationwide Sample)

Am J Cardiol. 2021 Feb 15;141:127-132. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.11.003. Epub 2020 Nov 18.


We aimed to evaluate the role of gender differences in the outcomes of catheter-based peripheral arterial disease interventions on a national level. We queried the National Inpatient Sample Database and identified all patients who presented with acute or symptomatic long term limb ischemia requiring transcatheter nonsurgical peripheral intervention in the years of 2016 to 2017. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as the composite end point of in-hospital mortality, nonfatal stroke, and acute myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes were the subject components of the primary end point, vascular complications, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, limb amputation, total cost, and length of stay. A total of 58,165 patients were included. The majority were males (57.2%) and of white race (67.1%). On multivariate analysis, female gender was an independent predictor of MACE with an adjusted odd ratio (a-OR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12 to 1.65, p = 0.002), mortality (a-OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.04, p = 0.006), nonfatal stroke (a-OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.56 to 4.03, p < 0.001), major bleeding (a-OR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.28, p < 0.001), and higher cost with an adjusted mean ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.033). There was no significant difference in the rates of myocardial infarction, vascular complications, limb amputation, acute kidney injury, and length of stay. In conclusion, females presenting with acute or symptomatic long term limb ischemia requiring transcatheter peripheral intervention have a significantly higher composite risk of MACE.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amputation / statistics & numerical data
  • Angioplasty*
  • Endovascular Procedures*
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs
  • Hospital Mortality*
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / surgery*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Sex Factors
  • Stroke / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology