Overview of STING-Associated Vasculopathy with Onset in Infancy (SAVI) Among 21 Patients

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Feb;9(2):803-818.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.11.007. Epub 2020 Nov 18.


Background: Gain-of-function mutations in STING1 underlie a type I interferonopathy termed SAVI (STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy). This severe disease is variably characterized by early-onset systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy, and interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Objective: To describe a cohort of patients with SAVI.

Methods: Assessment of clinical, radiological and immunological data from 21 patients (17 families) was carried out.

Results: Patients carried heterozygous substitutions in STING1 previously described in SAVI, mainly the p.V155M. Most were symptomatic from infancy, but late onset in adulthood occurred in 1 patient. Systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy, and ILD were observed in 19, 18, and 21 patients, respectively. Extensive tissue loss occurred in 4 patients. Severity of ILD was highly variable with insidious progression up to end-stage respiratory failure reached at teenage in 6 patients. Lung imaging revealed early fibrotic lesions. Failure to thrive was almost constant, with severe growth failure seen in 4 patients. Seven patients presented polyarthritis, and the phenotype in 1 infant mimicked a combined immunodeficiency. Extended features reminiscent of other interferonopathies were also found, including intracranial calcification, glaucoma and glomerular nephropathy. Increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon α protein was constant. Autoantibodies were frequently found, in particular rheumatoid factor. Most patients presented with a T-cell defect, with low counts of memory CD8+ cells and impaired T-cell proliferation in response to antigens. Long-term follow-up described in 8 children confirmed the clinical benefit of ruxolitinib in SAVI where the treatment was started early in the disease course, underlying the need for early diagnosis. Tolerance was reasonably good.

Conclusion: The largest worldwide cohort of SAVI patients yet described, illustrates the core features of the disease and extends the clinical and immunological phenotype to include overlap with other monogenic interferonopathies.

Keywords: Interstitial lung disease; JAK inhibitors; Lymphopenia; Polyarthritis; STING1; Stimulator of interferon genes; Type I interferonopathy; Vasculopathy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Inflammation
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mutation
  • Vascular Diseases*


  • Membrane Proteins
  • STING1 protein, human