Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L.) roots, leaves, and flowers have a long history of use in traditional medicine. Compared to the above organs, dandelion fruits are the least known and used. Hence, the present paper was aimed at the phytochemical analysis of T. officinale fruit extract and estimating its antiradical, antiplatelet, and antioxidant properties related to hemostasis. Methanolic extract of fruits (E1), enriched with polyphenols (188 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), was successfully separated into cinnamic acids (E2; 448 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (E3; 377 mg GAE/g) extracts. Flavonoid extract was further divided into four fractions characterized by individual content: A (luteolin fraction; 880 mg GAE/g), B (philonotisflavone fraction; 516 mg GAE/g), C (flavonolignans fraction; 384 mg GAE/g), and D (flavone aglycones fraction; 632 mg GAE/g). High DPPH radical scavenging activity was evaluated for fractions A and B (A > B > Trolox), medium for extracts (Trolox > E3 > E2 > E1), and low for fractions C and D. No simple correlation between polyphenol content and antiradical activity was observed, indicating a significant influence of qualitative factor, including higher anti-oxidative effect of flavonoids with B-ring catechol system compared to hydroxycinnamic acids. No cytotoxic effect on platelets was observed for any dandelion preparation tested. In experiments on plasma and platelets, using several different parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, oxidation of thiols, and platelet adhesion), the highest antioxidant and antiplatelet potential was demonstrated by three fruit preparations-hydroxycinnamic acids extract (E2), flavonoid extract (E3), and luteolin fraction (A). The results of this paper provide new information on dandelion metabolites, as well as their biological potential and possible use concerning cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: HR-QTOF-MS; adhesion; antiplatelet activity; biflavones; blood platelets; dandelion fruits; flavones; flavonolignans; oxidative stress.