Noonan syndrome is a multiorgan system disorder mediated by genetic defects along the RASknown as RASopathies. It is the second most common syndromic cause of congenital heart disease and, in ∼20% of the cases, is associated with severe lymphatic disorders, including chylothorax and protein-losing enteropathy. Recently, we reported on the use of mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition in a patient with an ARAF mutation and severe lymphatic disorder leading to an abrupt improvement in symptoms and complete remodeling of the central lymphatic system. Here, we present a patient with Noonan syndrome and severe lymphatic abnormality, leading to transfusion-dependent upper gastrointestinal bleeding and protein-losing enteropathy. The patient stopped responding to medical therapy and underwent several lymphatic interventional procedures, which led only to a temporary improvement in symptoms. Because of a lack of other treatment options, an expanded access approval was obtained, and the patient initiated treatment by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition using trametinib. This led to resolution of her symptoms, with complete normalization of her electrolyte levels, hemoglobin, and albumin within 3 months of starting the drug. Similar to the previously reported case, she also had complete and generalized remodeling of her lymphatic system. In patients with RAS pathway defects complicated by a severe lymphatic disorder, inhibition of the RAS-MAPK pathway should be considered as a possible treatment option in patients who failed conventional treatment and might be a first-line treatment in the future.
Copyright © 2020 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.