The Parasomnias

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2021 Jan;30(1):131-142. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2020.08.007. Epub 2020 Oct 27.


Parasomnias usually present in childhood and resolve spontaneously. The diagnosis of non-rapid eye movement-related parasomnias is mainly based on clinical descriptors and can be challenging. Rapid eye movement-related parasomnias may index an underlying psychiatric disorder. Even if benign, parasomnias can affect quality of life. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists should be familiarized with these sleep disorders and suggest adequate sleep hygiene, avoidance of sleep deprivation, and regular bedtimes even on weekends as the first step in management of these disorders. Clinicians should pursue the opportunity for tailoring treatments and consider referral to a sleep expert when indicated.

Keywords: Confusional arousals; NREM parasomnias; REM-related parasomnias; Sleep enuresis; Sleep terrors; Sleepwalking.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Parasomnias* / diagnosis
  • Parasomnias* / therapy
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Wake Disorders*