Citizenship as the exception to the rule: an addendum

AI Soc. 2021;36(3):911-930. doi: 10.1007/s00146-020-01105-9. Epub 2020 Nov 14.


This addendum expands upon the arguments made in the author's 2020 essay, "Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligence: Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule", in an effort to display the significance human augmentation technologies will have on (feasibly) inadvertently providing legal protections to artificial intelligence systems (AIS)-a topic only briefly addressed in that work. It will also further discuss the impacts popular media have on imprinting notions of computerised behaviour and its subsequent consequences on the attribution of legal protections to AIS and on speculative technological advancement that would aid the sophistication of AIS.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Human augmentation; Legal personality; Optical computation; Speculative bioethics; Technoethics.