Pre-operative serum inflammation-based scores in patients with pituitary adenomas

Pituitary. 2021 Jun;24(3):334-350. doi: 10.1007/s11102-020-01112-5. Epub 2020 Nov 24.


Objective: Full blood count (FBC) and serum inflammation-based scores reflect systemic inflammation and predict outcomes in cancer, but little is known in pituitary adenomas (PAs). We aimed to characterise FBC and inflammation-based scores in PA patients and investigate their usefulness in predicting challenging disease course.

Methods: We studied 424 PA patients first operated at our centre with available pre-operative biochemical data. Patients with infection, malignancies, autoimmune or haematological conditions were excluded. Inflammation-based scores studied: Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio (LMR), Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index (SII), Neutrophil-Platelet Score (NPS), Prognostic Nutrition Index (PNI), and Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS).

Results: Cushing's disease patients had more platelets, leucocytes, neutrophils and monocytes, and higher NLR, NPS and SII. Serum inflammation-based scores didn't differ among non-Cushing PA subtypes. The glucocorticoid excess severity influenced leucocyte, eosinophil, basophil and platelet counts, and GPS in Cushing's disease. Patients with functioning non-Cushing PAs with suprasellar extension, cavernous sinus invasion and hypopituitarism had GPS ≥ 1, while NPS ≥ 1 was associated with suprasellar extension. More invasive and difficult to treat corticotrophinomas were associated with fewer platelets pre-operatively (< 299.5 × 109/L predicting multimodal treatment). Non-functioning PA patients who suffered apoplexy had more leucocytes, neutrophils and monocytes, higher GPS ≥ 1 and fewer platelets; re-operated cases had fewer lymphocytes, higher NLR and PLR.

Conclusions: Serum inflammation-based scores may predict invasive/refractory PAs: GPS and PNI in non-functioning and functioning non-Cushing PAs; NPS in functioning non-Cushing PAs; NLR and PLR in non-functioning PAs. Platelets < 299.5 × 109/L predict multimodal treatment in Cushing's disease. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.

Keywords: Pituitary adenoma; Serum inflammation-based scores; Serum inflammatory biomarkers; Systemic inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Lymphocytes
  • Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion*
  • Pituitary Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies