Effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors on disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19: A meta-analysis

J Med Virol. 2021 Apr;93(4):2287-2300. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26695. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Abstract

To investigate the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A meta-analysis was performed. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, EMBASE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv database through October 30, 2020. The primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and severe COVID-19, respectively. We included 25 studies with 22,734 COVID-19 patients, and we compared the outcomes between patients who did and did not receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs). The use of ACEIs/ARBs was not associated with higher risks of severe disease (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 1.15; I2 = 38.55%), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16; I2 = 3.19%), dialysis (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 2.39; I2 = 0.00%), or the length of hospital stay (SMD = 0.05; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.26; I2 = 84.43%) in COVID-19 patients. The effect estimates showed an overall protective effect of ACEIs/ARBs against mortality (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85; I2 = 73.37%), severity/mortality (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; I2 = 22.90%), transfer to the intensive care unit among COVID-19 patients with hypertension (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.53, I2 = 0.00%), hospitalization (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98; I2 = 0.00%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.95; I2 = 0.00%). The use of RAAS inhibitor was not associated with increased mortality or disease severity in COVID-19 patients. This study supports the current guidelines that discourage the discontinuation of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); meta-analysis; mortality; severity.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • COVID-19 / drug therapy*
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • Databases, Factual
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / virology
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Length of Stay
  • Prognosis
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / isolation & purification
  • Severity of Illness Index

Substances

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors