Anthocyanins, as natural food colorants, are bioactive substances with several health advantages. In this research, the effects of dietary anthocyanins on biomarkers of glycemic control and glucose metabolism was evaluated through a meta-analysis. The results revealed a significant reduction in levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS; -2.70 mg/dl, 95% CI: -4.70 to -1.31; P < 0.001), 2-h postprandial glucose (2-h PPG; -11.1 mg/dl, 95% CI: -18.7 to -3.48; P = 0.004), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; -11.1 mg/dl, 95% CI: -18.7 to -3.48; P = 0.004), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.54, 95% CI: -0.94 to -0.14; P = 0.008), resistin (-1.23 µg/l, 95% CI: -2.40 to -0.05; P = 0.041), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; -5.09 µg/l, 95% CI: -9.45 to -0.73; P = 0.022) following administration of anthocyanins, whilst changes in the levels of fasting insulin (0.33 mU/l, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.85; P = 0.207) and C-peptide (-0.02 µg/l, 95 %CI: -0.20 to 0.16; P = 0.816) was not statistically significant. Consumption of anthocyanins for >8 weeks and at doses >300 mg/day significantly reduced levels of FBS, 2-h PPG, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR. Moreover, anthocyanins administration reduced the levels of FBS, 2-h PPG, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR in type 2 diabetic subjects and HOMA-IR in overweight/obese individuals. Overall, dietary anthocyanins can be used as an adjuvant therapy to improve biomarkers of glycemic control and glucose metabolism specially in diabetic subjects.
Keywords: Anthocyanins; Glucose metabolism; Glycemic control; Insulin resistance; Insulin sensitivity; Meta-analysis.
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