Comorbidities Associated With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Crit Care Nurs Q. 2021 Jan/Mar;44(1):103-112. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000343.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is characterized by airflow obstruction, causing respiratory symptoms. There are treatments available for COPD; however, COPD has significant extrapulmonary effects, including well-recognized ones as cardiovascular disease and often underdiagnosed ones as osteoporosis. It is imperative to be aware of these comorbidities to optimize COPD patient care.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Comorbidity
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / complications