To date, the effects of specific modification types and sites on protein lifetime have not been systematically illustrated. Here, we describe a proteomic method, DeltaSILAC, to quantitatively assess the impact of site-specific phosphorylation on the turnover of thousands of proteins in live cells. Based on the accurate and reproducible mass spectrometry-based method, a pulse labeling approach using stable isotope-labeled amino acids in cells (pSILAC), phosphoproteomics, and a unique peptide-level matching strategy, our DeltaSILAC profiling revealed a global, unexpected delaying effect of many phosphosites on protein turnover. We further found that phosphorylated sites accelerating protein turnover are functionally selected for cell fitness, enriched in Cyclin-dependent kinase substrates, and evolutionarily conserved, whereas the glutamic acids surrounding phosphosites significantly delay protein turnover. Our method represents a generalizable approach and provides a rich resource for prioritizing the effects of phosphorylation sites on protein lifetime in the context of cell signaling and disease biology.
Keywords: DeltaSILAC; data-independent acquisition; mass spectrometry; phosphomodiform; phosphorylation; protein lifetime; protein turnover; proteomics; pulse SILAC.
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