Traumatic Retinal Detachment in Patients with Self-Injurious Behavior: An International Multicenter Study

Ophthalmol Retina. 2021 Aug;5(8):805-814. doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2020.11.012. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Abstract

Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and management recommendations in patients with traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) resulting from self-injurious behavior (SIB).

Design: International, multicenter, retrospective, interventional case series.

Participants: Patients with SIB from 23 centers with RRD in at least 1 eye.

Methods: Clinical histories, preoperative assessment, surgical details, postoperative management, behavioral intervention, and follow-up examination findings were reviewed.

Main outcome measures: The rate of single-surgery anatomic success (SSAS) was the primary outcome. Other outcomes included new RRD in formerly attached eyes, final retinal reattachment, and final visual acuity.

Results: One hundred seven eyes with RRDs were included from 78 patients. Fifty-four percent of patients had bilateral RRD or phthisis bulbi in the fellow eye at final follow-up. The most common systemic diagnoses were autism spectrum disorder (35.9%) and trisomy 21 (21.8%) and the most common behavior was face hitting (74.4%). The average follow-up time was 3.3 ± 2.8 years, and surgical outcomes for operable eyes were restricted to patients with at least 3 months of follow-up (81 eyes). Primary initial surgeries were vitrectomy alone (33.3%), primary scleral buckle (SB; 26.9%), and vitrectomy with SB (39.7%), and 5 prophylactic SBs were placed. Twenty-three eyes (21.5%) with RRDs were inoperable. The SSAS was 23.1% without tamponade (37.2% if including silicone oil), and final reattachment was attained in 80% (36.3% without silicone oil tamponade). Funnel-configured RRD (P = 0.006) and the presence of grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P = 0.002) correlated with re-detachment. The use of an SB predicted the final attachment rate during the initial surgery (P = 0.005) or at any surgery (P = 0.008. These associations held if restricting to 64 patients with ≥12 months followup. Anatomic reattachment correlated with better visual acuity (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: RRD resulting from SIB poses therapeutic challenges because of limited patient cooperation, bilateral involvement, chronicity, and ongoing trauma in vulnerable and neglected patients. The surgical success rates were some of the lowest in the modern retinal detachment literature. The use of an SB may result in better outcomes, and visual function can be restored in some patients.

Keywords: PVR detachment; Scleral buckle; Self-injurious behavior; Traumatic retinal detachment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't