Background: Leiomyosarcoma usually develops in the myometrium and is characterized by a high recurrence rate, frequent hematogenous dissemination, and poor prognosis. Metastasis is usually to lungs, liver, and bone, and occasionally to the brain, but seldom to the head and neck region. Primary leiomyosarcoma very rarely arises in the broad ligament.
Case presentation: A 54-year old woman presented to the otolaryngology department with a mass in the right posterior region of the neck 4 years after surgery for a primary leiomyosarcoma of the right broad ligament. The neck mass was removed and found to be a metastatic leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma localizations in lungs and liver were absent. Morphological examination showed both the primary and the secondary leiomyosarcomas to have features of low-grade tumors. One year after excision of the neck mass, the patient presented with tachycardia. Echocardiography detected two intracardiac nodules suggestive of metastatic tumors. Chemotherapy was administered; the disease has been stable since then.
Conclusions: We report the first case of broad ligament leiomyosarcoma with the neck subcutaneous region being the first site of secondary involvement. We speculate that the Batson venous plexus might have been the pathway of dissemination.
Keywords: Atypical uterine smooth muscle tumors; Batson plexus; Broad ligament leiomyosarcoma; Case report; Head and neck leiomyosarcoma; Metastasis.