Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Report on Managing the Hyperinflammation

Mil Med. 2020 Nov 26;usaa508. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usaa508. Online ahead of print.


The novel human coronavirus of 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly swept throughout the entire world. As the ongoing pandemic has spread, recent studies have described children presenting with a multisystem inflammatory disorder sharing the features of Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome, now named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). These cases report a similar phenotype of prolonged fever, multisystem involvement, and biomarkers demonstrating marked hyperinflammation that occurs temporally in association with local community spread of SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we describe the presentation, clinical characteristics, and management of an 11-year-old boy with prolonged fever, strikingly elevated inflammatory markers, and profound, early coronary artery aneurysm consistent with a hyperinflammatory, multisystem disease temporally associated with coronavirus disease 2019. We highlight our multidisciplinary team's management with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, and an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, as a strategy to manage this multisystem, hyperinflammatory disease process.