Controlled fracture of the medial wall versus structural autograft with bulk femoral head to increase cup coverage by host bone for total hip arthroplasty in osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip: a retrospective cohort study

J Orthop Surg Res. 2020 Nov 26;15(1):561. doi: 10.1186/s13018-020-02088-5.

Abstract

Background: Many methods have been proposed to increase cup coverage by host bone during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in hip osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). However, there was no study comparing the results of controlled fracture of the medial wall with a structural autograft with a bulk femoral head.

Methods: Sixty-seven hips classified as Crowe II/III were retrospectively included in this cohort study, which consisted of 33 controlled fractures (group A) and 34 structural autografts (group B). The Harris Hip Scores (HHS) were recorded. The radiological assessments were analyzed. Also, complications are assessed. The paired-sample t test was used for data analysis before and after the operation, while the independent sample T test was used for the comparison between the two groups. The Pearson chi-square test or the Fisher exact test was used to analyze the qualitative comparative parameters. Kaplan-Meier was utilized in the analysis of survivorship with the end points as a revision for any component.

Results: All patients were reconstructed acetabulum at the anatomical location. HHS increased greatly for both groups (p = 0.18). No statistic difference was observed for the two groups in postoperative leg-length discrepancy (0.51 ± 0.29 cm for group A and 0.46 ± 0.39 cm for group B, p = 0.64 ), postoperative height of the hip center (2.25 ± 0.42 cm for group A and 2.09 ± 0.31 cm for group B, p = 0.13), and inclination of the cup (39 ± 4° for group A and 38 ± 3° for group B, p = 0.65 ). The rate of cup coverage for group B (94 ± 2%) was better than for group A (91 ± 5%), (p = .009). The rate of cup protrusio was 48 ± 4% for group A. For both groups, no statistical difference was observed in the cup diameter (p > .05), while group A showed less operation time than group B (p < .001). No complications were observed at the latest follow-up.

Conclusion: Controlled fracture of the medial wall to increase cup coverage by host bone at the anatomical location can act as an alternative technique for DDH Crowe II/III with the advantage of shorter operation time and less technically demanding.

Keywords: Controlled fracture of the medial wall; Cup coverage; Developmental dysplasia of the hip; Structural autograft; Total hip arthroplasty.

MeSH terms

  • Acetabulum / surgery*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods*
  • Autografts*
  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip / complications*
  • Female
  • Femur Head / surgery*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hip Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Operative Time
  • Osteoarthritis, Hip / etiology*
  • Osteoarthritis, Hip / surgery*
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Retrospective Studies