Background: Even though neonatal mortality reduction is the major goal needed to be achieved by 2030, it is still unacceptably high especially in Ethiopia. In the other hand, low birth weight is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. More than 10 millions of low birth weight infants occurred as a result of pregnancy induced hypertension. However, in Ethiopia the association between low birth weight and pregnancy induced hypertension was represented with un-updated, inconclusive and different studies. Therefore, this review aimed to estimate the overall pooled impact of pregnancy induced hypertension on low birth weight and its association in Ethiopia.
Methods: articles searched on PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, Google, Google Scholar and local shelves. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was applied for critical appraisal. The I2 statistic was computed to check the presence of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. A random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of low birth weight.
Result: From the total 131 identified original articles, 25 were eligible and included for the final analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension in Ethiopia was 39.7% (95% CI: 33.3, 46.2). But, I2 statistic estimation evidenced significant heterogeneity across included studies (I2 = 89.4, p < 0.001). In addition, the odds of having low birth weight newborns among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was 3.89 times higher compared to their counterparts (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 2.66, 5.69).
Conclusion: The pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was more than two times higher than the pooled estimate of low birth weight among all reproductive aged women. The odds of low birth weight also increased nearly four times among women with pregnancy induced hypertension than normotensive women. Therefore, health policies which provide better and quality antenatal care with more oriented on importance of early detection and management of pregnancy induced hypertension should be implemented.
Keywords: Ethiopia; Low birth weight; Pregnancy induced hypertension.